PART ONE
General Cytology
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l i
m
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jl
V —
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■ i Gastric
* Colon
» Pancreas
*■ " Breast
B lymphocyte
T lymphocyte
™ Monocyte/Neutrophil
fibroblast
endothelium
B
C
D
E
F
integrin beta 4
Ert)B3
Claudin4
Claudtn3
SH3BP1
MST1R
Desmoptakin
Keratin 18
Keratin 8
AHHGEF5
ARHGEF16
DDR I
E*74 tike factor
BCL2
HLA-DRB1
HLA-DGB1
ig lambda locus
Sg heavy constant
HLA-OQA1
CD20
HLA-DPB1
CD28
CD3D
CD3G
CDS
THV1
COMP
COL3A1
COL6A3
CRYAB
COL1A1
TAGLN
COL1A2
ANGPT2
RGS4
ES Ml
PGF
VE-cadhortn
RGSS
CD31
VWF
Fig. 1.9
Analysis of the
gene expression signature
of a panel of gastric cancer cells with different biological phenotypes. Genes expressed at high levels are
indicated in red, those expressed at lower levels are indicated in green. By comparing the expression level of distinct genes (or
c
-D N A s)
among different cell
lines, complex differences among the expression of many genes can be monitored in a large number of tissues of cell lines. Using distinct software algorithms
tissues or cell lines can be clustered in an hierarchical order that reflects their biological phenotype. The figure shows an example of various gastric cancer cell
lines of which some display similar phenotypes: (B) epithelial cell cluster; (C) B lymphocytes cluster; (D) T lymphocytes cluster; (E) fibroblast cell cluster;
(F) endothelial cell cluster. the results were visualized and analyzed with treeView (M eisen; http://rana.lbl.gov). Data and images were taken from Ji et al.6
cell (e.g. cancer cells) from cells with other biological properties
(e.g. a normal stem cell that is not transformed). Cancer cells of
the same organ origin, e.g. gastric cancers, may display substan-
tially different biological properties that reflect different gene
signatures.6 These changes of the gene expression pattern of cells
or tissues can be monitored by gene expression arrays (Fig. 1.9).
To convert a normal somatic cell into a full-blown cancer cell
many distinct steps are required, during which the gene expres-
sion pattern of the respective cell is gradually modified and the
phenotype of the cell is transformed into increasingly neoplastic
12
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