13
Respiratory Tract
a high diagnostic yield for lung cancer and in most cases should
be used before resorting to aspiration. In contrast, however, it is
clear that FNA biopsy is the procedure of primary choice for
patients with suspected metastases to the lung.
Concluding Remarks
The pulmonary system is an extremely complex organ and as
such may be the site of a large number of disease processes both
benign and neoplastic. These diseases may originate in the lungs
and involve them exclusively, or may be present there as a
localized manifestation of systemic disease. Because of its
relationship to the exterior through the tracheobronchial tree
and its proximity through the chest wall, it lends itself to the
many diagnostic cytopathologic techniques now available as
major aids in the detection and even definitive diagnosis of
these many diseases. The major purpose of this chapter has been
to discuss the diseases amenable to these procedures and to out-
line the diagnostic principles that apply. Careful attention to
these principles and extreme care before rendering diagnoses,
particular of cancer, will guarantee that cytopathology of the
pulmonary system will remain a highly respected and widely
employed procedure throughout the world.
References
1.
Papanicolaou GN. Atlas of Exfoliative
Cytology. Cambridge, MA, 1954,
Harvard University Press. Common-
wealth Fund.
2.
Archer PG, Koprowska I, McDonald JR,
et al. A study of variability in the inter-
pretation of sputum cytology slides.
Cancer Res
1966;26:2122-2144.
3.
Wandall HH. A study on neoplastic
cells in sputum as a contribution to the
diagnosis of primary lung cancer.
Acta
Chir Scand
1944;91:1-143.
4.
Hampson F. Exfoliative cytology in
diagnosis of lung cancer—examination
of one laboratory's results.
Br Med J
1956;2:1461-1462.
5.
Bamforth J. The examination of the
sputum and pleural fluid in the diag-
nosis of malignant diseases of the lung.
Thorax
1946;1:118-127.
6.
Grunze H. A critical review and evalua-
tion of cytodiagnosis in chest diseases.
Acta Cytol
1960;4:175-198.
7.
Russell WO, Neidhardt HW, Mountain
CF, et al. Cytodiagnosis of lung cancer.
A report of a four-year laboratory, clini-
cal, and statistical study with a review of
the literature on lung cancer and pulmo-
nary cytology.
Acta Cytol
1963;7:1-44.
8.
Woolner LB, McDonald JR. Bronchogenic
carcinoma: Diagnosis by microscopic
examination of sputum and bronchial
secretions; preliminary report.
Proc Staff
Meetings Mayo Clin
1947;22:369-381.
9.
McDonald JR. Exfoliative cytology in
genitourinary and pulmonary diseases.
Am J Clin Pathol
1954;24:684-687.
10.
Papanicolaou GN, Cromwell HA.
Diagnosis of cancer of the lung by
the cytologic method.
Dis Chest
1949;15:412-418.
11.
Farber SM, Rosenthal M, Alston EF, et al.
Cytologic Diagnosis of Lung Cancer.
Spring-
field, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1950.
12.
Clerf LH, Herbut PA. Diagnosis of
bronchogenic carcinoma by examina-
tion of bronchial secretions.
Ann Otol
1946;55:646.
13.
Herbut PA. Cancer cells in bronchial
secretions.
Am J Pathol
1947;23:867-868.
14.
Foot NC. Cytologic diagnosis in
suspected pulmonary cancer. Critical
analysis of smears from 1,000 persons.
Am J Clin Pathol
1955;25:223-240.
15.
Umiker WO. The current role of exfo-
liative cytopathology in the routine
diagnosis of bronchogenic carcionoma; a
five-year study of 152 consecutive, unse-
lected cases.
Dis Chest
1961;40:154-159.
16.
Richardson HL, Koss LG, Simon TR.
An evaluation of the concomitant use
of cytological and histocytological
techniques in the recognition of cancer
in exfoliated material from various
sources.
Cancer
1955;8:948-950.
17.
Koss LG.
Diagnostic Cytology and Its His-
topathologic Bases,
3rd edn. Philadelphia:
JB Lipincott, 1979.
18.
Spjut HJ, Fier DJ, Ackerman LV. Exfolia-
tive cytology and pulmonary cancer.
J Thorac Surg
1955;30:90-107.
19.
von Haam E. A comparative study of
the accuracy of cancer cell detection by
cytological methods.
Acta Cytol
1962;6:
508-518.
20.
Dahlgren S, Nordenstrom B.
Transtho-
racic Needle Biopsy.
Chicago: Year Book
Medical Publishers, 1966.
21.
Feldman PS, Covell JL.
Fine Needle Aspira-
tion Cytology and Its Clinical Applications:
Breast and Lung.
Chicago: American Soci-
ety of Clinical Pathologists Press, 1985.
22.
Frable WJ.
Thin Needle Aspiration Biopsy.
Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1983.
23.
Frable WJ, Johnston WW.
Respiratory
Cytology Transparencies, Explanatory Text
and Self-Evaluative Test, International
Cytology Slide Sets, XIX.
Chicago: Tutori-
als of Cytology, 1974.
24.
Frost JK. The cell in health and disease.
In: Weid GL (ed)
Monographs in Clinical
Cytology,
vol 2. Basel: Karger, 1986.
25.
Heaston DK, Mills SR, Moore AV, et al.
Percutaneous thoracic needle biopsy. In:
Putman C (ed)
Pulmonary Disease.
New
York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1981.
26.
Johnston WW. Cytopathology of the
respiratory tract. In: Keebler CM, Reagan
JW, (eds)
Manual of Cytotechnology.
Chicago: American Society of Clinical
Pathologists, 1983.
27.
Johnston WW. Cytologic diagnosis of
lung cancer.
Pathol Res Pract
1986;181:1-
36.
28.
Johnston WW. Cytologic correlations.
In: Dail DH, Hammar SP (eds)
Pulmo-
nary Pathology.
New York: Springer-Ver-
lag, 1988.
29.
Johnston WW. Cytopathology of the
lung. In: Weid GL, Keebler CM, Koss LG
(eds)
Compendium on Diagnostic Cytology.
6th edn, Chicago: Tutorials of Cytology,
1988.
30.
Johnston WW, Frable WJ. Cytopathol-
ogy of the respiratory tract: a review.
Am
J Pathol
1976;84:371-424.
31.
Johnston WW, Frable WJ.
Diagnostic
Respiratory Cytopathology.
Paris: Masson,
1979.
32.
Kaminsky DB. Applications of thin-
needle aspiration biopsy in a commu-
nity hosptitalIn: Johnston WW (ed)
The
Masson Series in Diagnostic Cytopathology,
vol 2.New York Masson,1981.
33.
Koss LG, Woyke S, Olszewski W.
Aspira-
tion Biopsy. Cytologic Interpretation and His-
tologic Bases.
Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin, 1985.
34.
Linder J, Johnston WW.
Pulmonary
Cytopathology.
Santa Monica, CA: Intel-
lipath, 1992.
35.
Rosenthal DL.
Cytopathology of pulmonary
disease.
In: Weid GL (ed)
Monographs in
Clinical Cytology.
Basel: Karger, 1988.
36.
Zajicek J. Aspiration biopsy cytology.
Part 1. Cytology of supradiaphragmatic
organs. In: Wied GL (ed)
Monographs in
Clinical Cytology,
vol 4. Basel: Karger, 1974.
37.
Risse EKJ, Vooijs GP, Van't Hof MA.
Relationship between the cellular com-
position of sputum and the cytologic
diagnosis of lung cancer.
Acta Cytol
1987;31:170-176.
38.
Saccomanno G, Saunders RP, Ellis H,
et al. Concentration of carcinoma or
atypical cells in sputum.
Acta Cytol
1963;7:305-310.
39.
Perlman EJ, Erozan YS, Howdon A.
The role of the Saccomanno technique
in sputum cytopathologic diagno-
sis of lung cancer.
Am J Clin Pathol
1989;91:57-60.
40.
Rizzo T, Schumann GB, Ridiny J. Com-
parison of the pick-and-smear and Sac-
comanno methods for sputum cytologic
analysis.
Acta Cytol
1990;34:875-880.
41.
Erozan YS. Cytopathology in the
diagnosis of pulmonary disease. In:
Seigelman SS, Stitik FP, Summer WR
(eds)
Multiple Imaging Procedures,
vol. 1:
Pulmonary System, Practical Approaches to
Pulmonary Diagnosis.
New York: Grune
and Stratton, 1979.
361
previous page 358 ComprehensiveCytopathology 1104p 2008 read online next page 360 ComprehensiveCytopathology 1104p 2008 read online Home Toggle text on/off