2
Basic Cytogenetics and the Role of Genetics in Cancer Development
fluorescent immunophenotyping and in situ hybridization, has
thus been developed.9 First, antibodies against the cytoplasmic
immunoglobulins X or k are applied in order to specifically
identify the plasma cells thanks to their cytoplasmic fluorescence.
Second, FISH probes will be hybridized to all cell types, but only
specifically target plasma cells will be analyzed. This FICTION
method is thus capable of detecting chromosomal abnormali-
ties in bone marrow specimens even when few plasma cells are
present (Fig. 2.20A and 2.20B).
Concluding Remarks
Over the past two decades, conventional cytogenetics has made it
possible to identify nearly all chromosomal abnormalities asso-
ciated with specific histological subtypes of lymphoproliferative
disorders and soft-tissue tumors. These chromosomal aberra-
tions made it possible, in a second step, to pinpoint the underly-
ing oncogenes and to study the pathogenesis of tumors bearing
such abnormalities. In addition to their role in fundamental
research, these alterations rapidly appeared to be powerful diag-
nostic and prognostic parameters relevant to use on a regular
basis. The constant emergence of commercial probes yielding
large, bright, and easily detectable signals made the FISH method
a reliable tool for detecting specific chromosomal abnormalities
on nondividing cells provided by cytology specimens such as
smears, cytospin, or liquid-based samples. At present time, there
is enough evidence in the specialized literature demonstrating
that I-FISH, in conjunction with other ancillary tools such as
immunocytochemistry and molecular biology, constitutes a
suitable complementary approach in the cytological diagnosis
of cancers detailed in this chapter.
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