PART THREE
Special Techniques in Cytology
Image plane
Projective
Ocular eye lens
Primary image
Ocular field lens
Q
Objective
Object
Condensor
LJ
r w w w v v
Aperture stop
Field iris
^
-------------^
Collector lens
«WVA
Light source
F ig . 3 2 .1 8 K oehler illu m in a tio n , im a g e - fo r m in g b e a m p a th .
had already been centered and focused. T his can be checked in
tw o ways. O ne m ay rem ove an ocular and lo o k d ow n in to the
tube, tow ard the back focal plane o f the objective. O ne w ill see
an image o f the aperture stop and can observe its closing. O ne
sho uld also see a sm all im age o f the source fila m e n t there and
w h e th e r it is centered. U n fo rtu n a te ly, m an y m icroscopes have
b u ilt-in d iffu sin g glass surfaces in the illu m in a tin g beam path
close to the source, m akin g it d iffic u lt to see the fila m e n t. O ne
m ay also close the aperture stop and observe the leaves o f this
iris fro m below, w ith a sm all m irro r, to see the projected image
o f the fila m e n t.
Concluding Remarks
C lin ica l cytop atholog y depends e n tire ly on the lig h t optical
m icroscope as its prim ary, indispensable instru m e nt. Its basic
design has n o t changed in w e ll over a century. There have, o f
course, been m a jo r im p rovem ents in the optics, resulting in
sharp, w ell-d efined im agery perfected to a p o in t th a t is lim ite d
o n ly by the properties o f the im ag e-form ing m ed ium , i.e. lig h t
waves. The principles o f im age fo rm a tio n are w e ll understood.
W ith the com ing o f the in fo rm a tio n age, m a jo r changes are on
the way. The tra d itio n a l analog image is augm ented b y d ig i-
tized imagery. Such im agery offers o p tio ns fo r in sta n t recording,
archiving, and w id e d istrib u tio n . The im agery o f an entire slide
m ay be stored o r tra nsm itted as a single v irtu a l im age fo r v ie w -
ing b y a d istant diagnostician. W h ile the challenge is to preserve
the superb q u a lity o f present day analog m icroscopic images in
the displayed d ig itized imagery, vast new o p tio ns fo r the u tiliz a -
tio n o f cytopathologic expertise and know ledge are developing.
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